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Château d'Allaman : isolation moderne sur charpente ancienne

Il faut remonter à l’an 1375 pour trouver les premiers documents mentionnant l’existence du château d’Allaman, bien que son origine réelle soit vraisemblablement encore plus ancienne. On sait qu’à cause de dettes importantes, l’édifice et les terres qui l’entouraient furent vendus à un certain François de Russin, qui y apporta des transformations. Mais au début du XVIe siècle, en 1530 exactement, les Bernois y mirent le feu, et l’incendie causa des dégâts considérables. L’aventure ne faisait que commencer…
Les charpentes de la marquise
En 1546, le sieur Louis Challet de Perroy, notaire de son état, acheta le château qui devint, trente ans plus tard, la propriété du seigneur de Denezy, Jacques Cerjat. Ce fut son fils Philippe qui bouleversa vraiment l’architecture du bâtiment pour l’accomoder à son goût et à la mode du temps. Une nouvelle phase de travaux d’amélioration eut lieu au XVIIIe siècle, sous la houlette de la marquise Jeanne-Marguerite de Langallerie, qui avait acquis le domaine en 1723. Les charpentes actuelles, celles précisément qu’il est nécessaire d’équiper de systèmes efficaces d’isolation, datent de cette époque. Le temps passa. L’un des propriétaires remarquables du lieu fut ensuite le chambellan de Napoléon, Jean-Jacques de Sellon, qui en prit possession en 1810. Au château d’Allaman, on vit ainsi paraître l’impératrice Joséphine et bien d’autres célébrités. Le bâtiment fut encore modifié pour, selon les dires de Monsieur de Sellon, « rendre l’habitation aussi agréable et confortable que possible pour y être engagé à y faire de fréquents séjours ». Au début du XXe siècle, la comtesse Cécile de Loriol en hérite. Son successeur, Gérard de Loriol, entame une restauration dans le style néo-médiéval. Le château devient monument historique en 1975. 
Le choix des matériaux
L’état ancien présentait une couverture de tuiles fixées sur chevrons, sans matériau d’isolation. Dans le choix technique qui a été fait sur ce chantier, une solution novatrice a été mise en œuvre : il s’agit d’un ensemble constitué d’un panneau en fibres de bois flexible Pavaflex, avec le lé d’étanchéité à l’air LDB 0,02 et des panneaux de sous-toiture Isolair/Isoroof. D’une épaisseur de 140mm, les panneaux Pavaflex sont posés dans les espaces entre les chevrons. Le lé est posé à plat, bord à bord, sur la face supérieure des chevrons. La pose des panneaux Isolair/Isoroof de 52mm achève l’opération. La structure poreuse des panneaux et leur masse élevée assurent un renforcement de la protection phonique et un bon bouclier contre la chaleur de l’été. Sur le toit du château, la superficie ainsi rénovée atteint les 1000m2. Ces matériaux, fabriqués par l’entreprise Pavatex, procurent ici une efficacité énergétique élevée avec une valeur U d’environ 0,2W/m2K. Cette partie du château s’approche donc de la conformité aux standards basse énergie qu’on applique aux constructions neuves. Les panneaux isolants en fibres de bois se découpent aisément à l’aide des outils habituels ; ils ne dégagent pas de particules susceptibles d’incommoder l’ouvrier, ni d’éléments toxiques. 
Un architecte séduit et satisfait
Nicolas Delachaux, architecte du cabinet Glatz & Delachaux SA, est manifestement fort satisfait d’avoir opté pour la solution Pavatex pour l’isolation de cette toiture : « Ces produits conviennent parfaitement pour la rénovation et la transformation de ce château, et leurs composants naturels constituent une base idéale pour un traitement écologique de l’édifice historique. » Il faut dire que, dans le cahier des charges initial, plusieurs paramètres importants étaient à prendre en compte : tout d’abord, il fallait protéger et conserver au maximum la charpente ancienne, sans modification fondamentale des conditions structurelles du bâtiment. Ensuite, bien entendu, installer une isolation offrant une protection optimale contre la chaleur, le froid et le bruit. Enfin, s’inscrire dans une thématique globale écologique et « durable ». « La conductibilité capillaire des panneaux en fibres de bois permet à l’humidité de traverser le matériau isolant pour laisser le bâtiment respirer. La protection de la charpente ainsi que le confort des occupants sont maintenant assurés », souligne, pour conclure, Nicolas Delachaux.
Qui est Pavatex ?
Pavatex est une entreprise suisse spécialisée dans la production de systèmes isolants en fibres de bois pour l’enveloppe des bâtiments. Elle est implantée sur deux sites, à Fribourg et à Cham. La fabrication des panneaux Pavatex utilise le procédé humide, selon lequel les dosses, délignures et plaquettes sont défibrées par un moyen thermomécanique puis mélangées à de l’eau. Les panneaux sont fabriqués ensuite par pressage et séchage. Ils sont perméables à la vapeur et assurent une bonne régulation hygrométrique. En 2008, le chiffre d’affaires s’élevait à 65,6millions d’euros.
170 personnes travaillent chez Pavatex.   

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