Lobjectif du désenfumage nest pas dévacuer la totalité des fumées produites par lincendie, mais une quantité suffisante pour que les lieux restent praticables et que les fumées ne se répandent pas dans les volumes voisins.
On peut citer trois types de désenfumage :
le désenfumage des grands volumes et des locaux de dimensions moyennes ;
le désenfumage des circulations horizontales ;
le désenfumage des escaliers.
Quatre techniques sont possibles :
le désenfumage naturel ;
le désenfumage mécanique/naturel ;
le désenfumage naturel/mécanique ;
le désenfumage mécanique.
Le désenfumage naturel consiste à évacuer les fumées par la mise en place damenées dair frais (ouvrants en façade, portes des locaux à désenfumer donnant sur lextérieur, bouches raccordées à des conduits, etc.) en partie basse du local et lévacuation des fumées et de la chaleur en partie haute. En cas dincendie, le déclenchement des deux systèmes doit être simultané. Le désenfumage mécanique est assuré par des extracteurs mécaniques de fumées et des amenées dair naturelles ou mécaniques disposées de manière à assurer un balayage correct du volume à désenfumer.
Protection des conduits de désenfumage
Promat, entreprise spécialisée dans la fabrication et la commercialisation disolants en plaques et projetés haute performance, présente Promatect L-500 destiné à la protection de structures en acier, aux conduits de ventilation et de désenfumage, à la protection des armatures collées en carbone et des gaines techniques. La résistance au feu obtenue avec le Promatect L-500 dépend de lépaisseur des plaques mises en uvre. Les qualités intrinsèques de cette plaque sont dabord sa légèreté : 500kg/m3 pour des plaques allant de 20 à 60mm dépaisseur (selon le degré coupe-feu), assemblées bout à bout, sans couvre-joint ; ensuite, sa résistance au feu : la plaque est classée A1, incombustible et chaque construction fait lobjet dun procès-verbal
de résistance au feu obtenu auprès dun laboratoire agréé ; également, sa résistance mécanique et enfin
son découpage : les plaques peuvent être travaillées au moyen de loutillage classique pour panneaux bois ou plaques de plâtre. Elles sont fixées par vissage ou agrafage. Les conduits Promatect L-500 ont lavantage dêtre autoportants sur de grandes hauteurs. Il est donc possible de mettre en uvre des conduits de 8,50 ou 10m, sans reprise de charges.
Nouveau coffret électrique de désenfumage à contrôle intégré
Souchier, spécialiste des systèmes de désenfumage et de ventilation naturelle, lance Sadap, nouvelle génération de coffrets électriques de désenfumage et aération. Les coffrets peuvent recevoir et gérer différents paramètres sécurité-désenfumage ou aération en amont et les retransmettre en aval aux DENFC (dispositif dévacuation naturelle de fumées et de la chaleur), en provoquant leur ouverture ou leur fermeture. Configurable et évolutif, Sadap affiche une grande souplesse dutilisation en mode aération de confort et désenfumage. Le dispositif de contrôle intégré permet une identification rapide des défauts survenus sur linstallation et une mémoire interne permet dobtenir rapidement lhistorique des derniers événements apparus. Linformation dalarme peut provenir dune centrale incendie, dun déclencheur manuel ou dun DAD (détecteur autonome déclencheur) pour alarme incendie. La fonction de base, prioritaire sur toutes les autres, est de permettre le passage en position de sécurité des DENFC raccordés au coffret Sadap, à la réception dun signal dalarme incendie. Ces nouveaux coffrets de Souchier se déclinent en deux versions correspondant à la valeur maximale du courant pouvant être délivré par les coffrets : courant maxi de sortie 3 A ou 10 A.
Voici les caractéristiques techniques de ces appareils :
alimentation principale : 230Vca/50Hzc
consommation : 80W (coffret Sadap 3 A) ou 250W (coffret Sadap 10 A)
tension de sortie : temporisée ou maintenue courant maxi : 3 A (coffret Sadap 3 A)
ou 10 A (coffret Sadap 10 A)
batteries : 2 × 12V/4,5 AH
autonomie batterie : entrée de télécommande 24Vcc ou 48Vcc
type de télécommande : émission ou rupture
nombre de lignes : 1 ligne
encombrement L × H × P : 310 × 230 × 200mm
poids : 7,5kg
Place au désenfumage « environnemental »
La société Hexadome assure une production annuelle de lordre de 40000 exutoires et lanterneaux, sur son site de Luynes, près de Tours, certifié ISO 9001 version 2008. La gamme est complétée par une offre complète dorganes de commande et un service façonnage proposant un large éventail daccessoires de toitures. Mais Hexadome souhaite aussi favoriser les énergies naturelles. En effet, des innovations telles que Hexasteel Therm et Hexasteel Shed sont les précurseurs dune nouvelle offre, baptisée Climatdome dont on nous dit quelle est « la nouvelle gamme de produits de désenfumage qui respecte son environnement ». Hexasteel Shed permet dobtenir un niveau moyen déclairage supérieur à 150 lux pendant 77% du temps sur une année (variations des conditions météorologiques prises en compte). Ce matériel semploie sur toutes les toitures étanchées. Il peut être utilisé comme un lanterneau ponctuel ou disposé en batterie pour une utilisation équivalente à celle de lanterneaux filants. Contrairement aux lanterneaux classiques, dont la surface éclairante est dans le plan incliné, celle de lHexasteel Shed est inclinée à 45° et doit être orientée vers le nord/nord-est. Avec la suppression de léblouissement, léclairage des bâtiments est très homogène. La face réfléchissante diffuse indirectement les rayonnements solaires et procure ainsi une ambiance lumineuse agréable. De plus, en limitant le rayonnement direct du soleil, les locaux ne sont pas chauffés par effet de serre. Le système se compose dune costière métallique dune hauteur de 305mm sur laquelle est fixée une isolation thermique surfacée de bitume afin de recevoir directement le revêtement détanchéité bitumineux, et dun remplissage par une coque polyester armée de fibre de verre isolée avec une mousse polyuréthane, dun polycarbonate 3 parois de 16 mm et dun cadre pareclose.
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