850 000 km de canalisations acheminent chaque jour l’eau potable à 65 millions de Français et 500 000 km permettent l’évacuation des eaux usées. Ce patrimoine joue un rôle déterminant en termes de préservation de la ressource en eau et de protection de la santé humaine, mais aussi d’emploi.
Des investigations menées par France Libertés et 60 millions de consommateurs révèlent de nombreux dysfonctionnements dus au vieillissement du réseau de distribution sans que cela préoccupe les collectivités. û titre d’exemple, les données de rendement de l’année 2011 du taux de renouvellement ne concernent que 1 186 collectivités sur les 14 419 que compte le listing de l’observatoire, soit à peine 8 %. Actuellement, sur l’ensemble du réseau, le rythme de renouvellement moyen est de 160 ans. Parmi les collectivités qui ont renseigné la base de donnée de l’Onema, 23 % affichent même un taux de renouvellement du réseau supérieur à 500 ans ! Or une canalisation a une durée de vie d’environ 75 ans. Plus on attend et plus la situation risque de s’aggraver. Chaque année, 1,3 milliard de mètres cubes d’eau sont perdus. Le vieillissement des réseaux est responsable d’une dégradation de l’eau potable. 60 % du réseau est constitué de matériaux (acier, fonte et PVC) pouvant représenter un risque pour la santé. Mais dans les années à venir, ce sont surtout les fuites dans le réseau d’assainissement, plus récent mais pas plus contrôlé que le réseau de distribution et confronté aux mêmes difficultés, qui pourraient contaminer durablement l’environnement et les nappes phréatiques.
4,5 milliards d’euros par an sur la période 2015-2030 : c’est ce que pourraient coûter les travaux de renouvellement du réseau. Ce renouvellement n’engendre cependant pas uniquement des coûts. Il constitue également un enjeu en termes d’emploi au niveau local. En effet, un million d’euros investis pour de tels travaux représente huit emplois directs créés, auxquels il faut ajouter quatre emplois induits. Entre 2015 et 2030, ce sont donc plusieurs dizaines de milliers d’emplois qui pourront être créés de manière pérenne. France Libertés et 60 millions de consommateurs lancent une enquête participative pour accélérer l’état des lieux des canalisations en France et publient une carte de France du renouvellement des réseaux d’eau potable. Objectif : mobiliser élus et citoyens à l’approche des élections municipales.
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