Parvenir à diminuer les dépenses énergétiques du bâti est indéniablement lun des grands défis qui sont lancés aux architectes daujourdhui. Or, tandis quil est parfaitement possible dimaginer des solutions totalement novatrices lorsque lon construit, larchitecture patrimoniale, elle, présente bien souvent des difficultés beaucoup plus considérables, du fait même de sa structure et de son esthétique. Comment restaurer de lancien en intégrant ces paramètres totalement modernes, sans dénaturer ce qui fait justement la particularité dun édifice existant ? Laffaire nest pas simple. Heureusement, le monde industriel a bien compris toutes les opportunités que pouvait présenter ce type de marché, et déjà nous voyons apparaître des solutions audacieuses. En voici justement un exemple significatif et réussi.
Une construction datant de Napoléon III
Limmeuble, qui appartient à une société dassurances, est situé à Paris, dans le viiie arrondissement. Cest une construction typique du xixe siècle, caractéristique des grands bouleversements effectués dans la capitale par le baron Haussmann. Des travaux complets de réfection et de restauration afin dy installer des bureaux contemporains sont en cours, sous la responsabilité de Pierre Weiler, un maître duvre dont la spécificité est dêtre à la fois architecte du Patrimoine, donc apte à gérer les contraintes spécifiques aux chantiers à caractère historique, et parallèlement de se passionner pour la réalisation de bâtiments bioclimatiques à très hautes performances énergétiques. Cette double compétence a pu ici sexprimer pleinement.
Une technologie innovante
La toiture est à double pente. Pierre Weiler souligne quil avait pour obligation « de conserver les brisis en ardoise et le terrasson en zinc ». Il fut décidé dy intégrer des panneaux photovoltaïques permettant daméliorer les performances énergétiques du bâtiment. La société Couverture GF, pilotée par Francis Arsène, sest mise à louvrage. « Nous nous trouvons en présence du premier immeuble haussmannien parisien intégrant un tel système », dit celui-ci. Dabord, la sous-face du toit a été surisolée par 200mm disolant sous les rampants et 300mm en combles. Puis, la nouvelle toiture a pu être installée. Il sagit du système Rheinzink PV Solaire à tasseaux qui associe des cellules photovoltaïques Uni-Solar à couche mince et des bacs Rheinzink en zinc-titane prépatiné clair. Certes, de nombreux modèles de panneaux photovoltaïques existent déjà sur le marché. Mais, ici, lintégration des cellules aux bacs est parfaite, lensemble sinstalle sur le toit sans élément de fixation supplémentaire.
Quarante-neuf mètres carrés de superficie photovoltaïque
Sur lensemble de ce toit, léquipe de Francis Arsène a posé 42 bacs selon la technique à tasseaux, dont 18 orientés au nord et 24 au sud, représentant une superficie photovoltaïque de 49m2. « La pose à tasseaux est considérée comme la plus classique encore en cours de nos jours », précise ce spécialiste. Le zinc-titane Rheinzink, dont la surface se patine naturellement avec le temps, ne nécessite aucun entretien. La longévité du matériau, nous dit-on, peut atteindre un siècle.
Rappelons que le groupe familial allemand Rheinzink , leader mondial du zinc-titane pour le secteur du bâtiment, ne cesse depuis quarante ans de développer la qualité de son matériau et den faire évoluer laspect et la teinte, notamment avec le prépatiné clair, comme lon peut observer ici, ou le prépatiné ardoise. Linstallation mise en uvre sur le toit de cet immeuble offre une puissance de 2,85kWc, pour une production théorique atteignant 2600kWh hors influence des ombres. Le rendement énergétique demeure élevé même en cas de lumière plutôt diffuse et de faible ensoleillement les conditions climatiques de lÎle-de-France nétant pas celles de Marseille ! grâce à la technologie dite de « triple jonction ». Le tout est relié directement au réseau EDF. La production délectricité étant ainsi rachetée, Aréas Assurances, propriétaire des lieux, espère pouvoir récupérer son investissement en une décennie.
Les acteurs du chantier
Maître douvrage : Aréas Assurances
Maître duvre : Cabinet darchitecture Pierre Weiler
Couvreur-zingueur : Couverture GF
Système photovoltaïque : bacs à tasseaux Rheinzink avec cellules Uni-Solar intégrées
Début du chantier : avril 2009
Fin du chantier : décembre 2009
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