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Tests de nettoyage des bétons à l’église Sainte-Odile

Après le nettoyage du choeœur de l’’église parisienne de Sainte-Odile, réalisé en 2005, les travaux de restauration de l’édifice se sont poursuivis en deux tranches effectuées en 2007-2008 : d’abord, la restauration extérieure des parties sur rue et jardin, y compris la totalité de l’immense clocher haut de 72m et, à l’intérieur,
le nettoyage de la première travée de la nef ; dans un second temps, la restauration extérieure, côté cour et le nettoyage des deux travées restantes de la nef. Ces travaux ont été menés par l’Association diocésaine de Paris, maître d’ouvrage, et sous la maîtrise d’oe’œuvre de l’architecte Hervé Montauffier. Dominique Herla-Douçot (ABF), Caroline Piel, Conservateur des monuments historiques (Drac), et Élisabeth Marie-Victoire (LRMH) ont accompagné les différentes phases de l’opération.

Les tests scientifiques
Deux types de techniques de nettoyage ont été testés par le LRMH en partenariat avec Ciments Calcia : des produits pelables à base de latex (trois gammes) et un nouvel appareil de nettoyage fondé sur un système d’injection-extraction d’eau. Les produits pelables sont des pâtes à base de latex naturel (sève d’hévéa stabilisée), prêtes à l’emploi, s’appliquant au pinceau, à la brosse ou à la pompe avec une machine spécifiquement développée pour cette application. Après un temps de polymérisation d’au moins 24h, le film est retiré à la main, les salissures y restant emprisonnées. L’injection-extraction est une technique de lavage à l’eau froide sous léger vide d’air. Le suceur crée un espace sous vide lorsqu’on l’applique sur le support, et l’eau est projetée à basse pression. L’action nettoyante est due à la rencontre de l’eau et de l’air, conjuguée à l’action du vide, qui produit des turbulences permettant de décrocher les salissures du support. L’eau sale qui a été en contact avec le support est immédiatement aspirée et récupérée dans une cuve pour être traitée ou éliminée.

Évaluation des résultats
Chaque technique a été évaluée suivant trois critères : facilité de mise en œuvre, efficacité du nettoyage et innocuité du traitement. Des observations à l’œil nu, aux microscopes optique et électronique à balayage (couplé à un EDS), des mesures de couleurs et des analyses en spectrométrie infrarouge ont composé le protocole d’analyses. L’injection-extraction d’eau s’est révélée très facile à mettre en œuvre, aucune projection d’eau n’ayant été observée. Sur ce type de salissures, noires et peu indurées, l’injection-extraction a également donné des résultats très satisfaisants et homogènes sur les deux sites. De plus, aucun impact sur le béton n’a été noté. La simplicité de mise en œuvre des pelables, en revanche, a été très variable en fonction des familles de produits testées : certains produits ont coulé, d’autres ont trop adhéré et été difficiles à peler. Les résultats des nettoyages ont aussi varié de nettement insuffisant à très satisfaisant. Enfin, certains produits ont eu un impact sur le béton, des arrachements de peau du béton ayant été observés lorsque le film était trop adhérent. En outre, des pollutions en sodium et des cristallisations de sels ont été notées pour certains produits contenant des agents complexants. Ces deux séries d’essais ont montré l’efficacité de l’injection-extraction d’eau et de certains produits pelables à base de latex sur ce type de salissures sur des surfaces planes. Sur des reliefs complexes, la technique des pelables est à conseiller. Ces essais ont enfin montré la nécessité, dans le cas des produits pelables, de fixer certains paramètres et notamment la nature et la quantité de produit à appliquer pour obtenir un résultat homogène et satisfaisant.

Le Cercle des partenaires du patrimoine
Le Cercle des partenaires du patrimoine, créé en 1993 à l’initiative du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, réunit des laboratoires publics et des entreprises privées qui mutualisent leurs savoir-faire scientifiques et technologiques ainsi que des moyens financiers. Cet engagement permet au Laboratoire de recherche des monuments historiques de réaliser et de développer des études scientifiques en vue de lutter contre les altérations qui affectent les différents matériaux constitutifs de notre patrimoine historique et contemporain. Son originalité et sa force résident en la réunion, au service d’objectifs communs, de moyens scientifiques et financiers. Chaque partenaire, laboratoire public ou entreprise privée, s’attache, en fonction de ses champs de compétences et d’intérêts, à la mise en œuvre d’un programme particulier. Chacun des programmes est conduit par une commission qui réunit des scientifiques du LRMH, des entreprises et d’autres laboratoires ou organismes de recherche publics. Le Cercle des partenaires du patrimoine s’engage à communiquer les résultats des recherches, au fur et à mesure, auprès de la communauté scientifique et des professionnels. Ces résultats apportent des réponses aux interrogations des maîtres d’œuvre du service des monuments historiques, mais aussi de tous ceux qui œuvrent à la conservation du patrimoine au sein des collectivités locales ou même à titre privé.

Le défi du père Loutil et de l’architecte Barge
En 1934, une campagne de générosité publique est lancée pour « donner à un quartier éloigné de sa paroisse une église et à l’Alsace redevenue française le monument qu’elle mérite ». Le père Loutil, alsacien d’origine, place la nouvelle église sous la protection d’Odile, sainte patronne de l’Alsace. L’édifice sert aussi de lieu de rassemblement des Alsaciens à Paris et de lieu de pèlerinage. La construction est confiée à l’architecte Jacques Barge, élève de Paul Tounon. Le style de cette église à file de coupoles s’inspire des églises romanes de l’Ouest de la France. Son austérité fait aussi penser à certaines églises rhénanes. La parcelle contraint l’architecte à un plan asymétrique, c’est pourquoi un côté de la nef est flanqué de chapelles absidiales, tandis que l’autre est largement ouvert par trois grandes baies ornées de vitraux signés François Décorchemont. Le bâtiment est en béton armé, avec différents matériaux harmonisés : le parement de grès rose alsacien en soubassement contraste avec la brique et avec le béton dont la teinte et la composition sont particulièrement élaborées. On note l’ingéniosité de la technique constructive avec, par exemple, pour les trois doubles coupoles de la nef en voile mince de béton, l’utilisation d’un seul coffrage déplacé par un système d’échafaudages mobiles. Le chantier a commencé en 1935. Il fut interrompu deux ans plus tard par des mouvements sociaux. Puis survint la seconde guerre mondiale. Finalement, Sainte-Odile fut ouverte au culte le 17 novembre 1946.

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